NetAppCommunity Knowledge Center

VNF Chaining across Multi-PoPs in OSM using Transport API

Management and Network Orchestration (MANO) systems permit simultaneous orchestration of compute and network resources. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate the integration of Transport API based WIM with Open Source MANO (OSM), for NFV orchestration over optical networks.

https://doi.org/10.1364/OFC.2019.W1G.4

5GUK Exchange: Towards sustainable end-to-end multi-domain orchestration of softwarized 5G networks

5G networks envisage to support a range of vertical industries, circumventing any potential barriers from converging various network technologies and administrative domains. Current solutions focus only on provisioning services within single administrative domains. There is also lack of standards for sustainable end-to-end multi-domain solutions that can use existing Network Function Virtualization (NFV) Management and Orchestration (MANO) systems. This is important to enable operators to collaborate and create innovative end-to-end services in a sustainable environment, where stakeholders can benefit without compromises. In this article, we present the 5GUK Exchange (5GUKEx), a novel hierarchical architecture to enable end-to-end orchestration with minimum overhead in complexity and performance while also allowing operators to maintain full control of their infrastructure. 5GUKEx allows operators to use their existing MANO systems for the single domain orchestration and build a multi-domain API based on standardized models exposed by service catalogues to coordinate the end-to-end service orchestration and interconnection. We built a prototype of the 5GUKEx and evaluated its performance through emulations showing that the 5GUKEx introduces minimum overhead. We also discuss the use-cases and trials using 5GUKEx in addition to the experiments focusing on the flexible nature of architecture, allowing us to use 5GUKEx to provide connectivity among multi domains over optical transport network.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2020.107297

5GASP: Security and trust in NetApp deployment and Operation

The adoption of 5G solutions in the industry vertical passes through the empowering of 5G-based Network Applications (NetApps) in the SMEs. This will unleash their potential with respect to the use of 5G technologies, while preparing them for beyond 5G. H2020-5GASP project aims to create an open, and inter-domain 5G NFV-based reference ecosystem of 5G European experimental facilities for SMEs, fully automated and self-service, in order to foster rapid development and testing of new and innovative NetApps, which will be built using the proposed 5G reference architecture. Besides, in the Open5G-NFV ecosystem proposed by 5GASP, the NetApps will be deployed on their own network slices, and, consequently, the traffic flows of the network will be effectively separated from each other. By doing so, the access control capabilities are greatly increased, as the network isolation eases the management of who can access a certain segment of the network. In this way, it will provide security and trust of 3rd party IPR running in the deployed testbed.

How to cite: Jorge Gallego-Madrid, Ana Hermosilla, Antonio F. Skarmeta, “5GASP: Security and Trust in NetApp Deployment and Operation”, 2021 Joint European Conference on Networks and Communications & 6G Summit (EuCNC/6G Summit): Workshop 8 – From 5G to 6G Automated and Intelligent SecuriTy: FAST, June 2021.

A Novel Autonomous Profiling Method for the Next-Generation NFV Orchestrators

Figure 1. Analogy between (a) classical control loops containing a controller (C), actuators (A) and sensors (S), and (b) next generation intelligent NFV MANO systems, that feed metrics acquired by a monitoring system (Mon) into a model (Profile) to calculate the appropriate resource configuration.

Telecommunication communities are striving to adopt Zero-touch network and Service Management (ZSM) in Network Function Virtualisation (NFV) orchestration. Recent efforts to adopt Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) have caused an upsurge in ZSM applications in the VNF space. While ML and AI complement the ZSM goals for building an intelligent NFV orchestration, a deep knowledge on resource consumption by Network Services (NSs) and its constituent Virtual Network Functions (VNFs) is required, as it can enable AI and ML models to manage the available resources better as well as to enhance user experience.

We propose a Novel Autonomous Profiling (NAP) method that predicts the optimum network load a VNF can support. At the same time, NAP can also estimate the required resources in terms of CPU, Memory, and Network to meet the performance targets and workload by utilising ML techniques. Our performance evaluation results on real datasets show that using NAP’s output in the next generation of NFV orchestration is feasible.

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How to cite: S. Moazzeni, Pratchaya Jaisudthi, Anderson Bravalheri, Navdeep Uniyal, Xenofon Vasilakos, Reza Nejabati and Dimitra Simeonidou, “A Novel Autonomous Profiling Method for the Next-Generation NFV Orchestrators,” in IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 642-655, March 2021, doi: 10.1109/TNSM.2020.3044707.

5G Experimentation for Public Safety: Technologies, Facilities and Use Cases

Today, legacy PMRs continue to be the only group of tested, verified and certified technologies for the Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR) sector. For the fifth generation (5G) to follow suit, substantial hands-on experimentation with functional, architectural and deployment aspects is required, and further test trials need to take place in order to inform and enable future verification and certification procedures for 5G to become a proven PPDR technology. This paper studies 5G PPDR experimentation associated with novel virtualized and cloud-native 5G technologies, architectures and deployment options, as well as feasibility studies and field performance and verifications trials involving vertical-specific 5G infrastructures and applications. Key enabling technologies, such as massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO), device-to-device (D2D), network slicing and multi-access edge computing (MEC) are discussed and 5G PPDR architecture and deployment options are investigated. A dedicated 5G PPDR experimentation facility is presented, and a case study of hands-on experimentation is provided. Two distinct scenarios are discussed, i.e., emergency augmentation of the terrestrial 5G PPDR network with rapidly deployable on-site capacities in the area of a public safety incident, and availability and reliability of decision-support PPDR applications on the field. Experience with the deployment and verification insights are accompanied by the results of quality of service (QoS) and non-functional key performance indicators (KPI) assessment that were exhibited during the experiment. The experimentation outcomes confirm the ability of the facility to support emulated laboratory experimentation specifically designed to tackle 5G challenges for this particular vertical as well as field studies recreating realistic public safety operations.

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How to cite: M. Volk and J. Sterle, “5G Experimentation for Public Safety: Technologies, Facilities and Use Cases,” in IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 41184-41217, 2021, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3064405.

5GASP specific terminology

Term Abbreviation Definition
5GASP Experimentation APIs service The back-end service services expose standardized OpenAPIs for providing programmatic access to the lifecycle and the internal NetApp catalogue. This catalogue will contain various NetApps versions and candidate NetApps for publishing.
5GASP facilities The 5GASP facilities, tailored to support the specificities of NetApps and acting as their hosts for testing. Each facility will host the following services: i) Testcase Execution Engine; ii) Monitoring repository per facility.
5GASP NetApp marketplace The 5GASP open marketplace which will contain validated and tested NetApps for every specified vertical.
Blueprint Flexible service templates.
Central Logging A central logging service which gathers timestamped information from various services across the platform providing means of issue traceability.
Certification The formal attestation or confirmation of certain characteristics of an object, person, or organisation.
Continuous Integration and Continuous Deployment CI/CD Combined practices of continuous integration and either continuous delivery or continuous deployment.
Development and Operations DevOps A set of practices that works to automate and integrate the processes between software development and IT teams so they can build, test, and release software faster and more reliable.
Issue management IM A generic service that notifies all the related stakeholders (NetApp tenants, facility, and platform owners) for any issues during the operation and testing lifecycle.
Lifecycle management The process of managing the entire lifecycle of a product from inception, through engineering design and manufacture, to service and disposal of manufactured products.
MANO Client API (SOL005) service A service that interfaces the operation and experimentation services with the NFV orchestrators of the facilities. The service will implement the ETSI NFV SOL005 interface found in compliant NFVOs.
Monitoring repository per facility A monitoring service in the facility, providing telemetry data from various resources of the facility (e.g. the NFVI, the NFVO, the 5G System, etc.).
Network Application NetApp Any application running on one host providing communication to another application running on a different host.
NetApp model transformation service This service will automatically translate and enhance the NetApp archive model and embedded entities for the target facility NFV Orchestrator, depending on the defined model (YANG or TOSCA).
NetApp onboarding and Experiment Management UI The Experimenter facing services, in terms of a centralized NetApps experimentation portal, that allows to manage tenant’s NetApps, trigger and monitor the experimentation lifecycle.
Network Functions Virtualization Management and Orchestration NFV-MANO A framework developed by a working group of the same name within the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Industry Specification Group for NFV (ETSI ISG NFV).
NEtwork Slice Type NEST A GST filled with values.
OnBoard Unit OBU A communication device mounted on vehicles.
Onboarding The process that occurs when new employees or users integrate software into their daily workflows.
Open Experimental Testing Platform The platform that can be used for the duration of the project by 5G NetApps developers (SME’s and non-SME’s) based on Open-Source Software tools.
Open Network Automation Platform ONAP A comprehensive platform for orchestration, management, and automation of network and edge computing services for network operators, cloud providers, and enterprises.
Open Platform for NFV OPNFV A collaborative project under the Linux Foundation that is transforming global networks through open-source Network Functions Virtualization (NFV).
RoadSide Unit RSU A DSRC communication unit that is located aside the roads.
Software Testing A method to check whether the actual software product matches expected requirements and to ensure that the software product is Defect free.
Testcase execution engine An engine capable of performing automated test based on defined test scripts against the installed NetApp in the facility.
V-Model A model which demonstrates the relationships between each phase of the development and onboarding life cycle and its associated phase of testing.

Common definitions

Term Abbreviation Definition
The 5th generation of wireless networks 5G The fifth generation technology standard for broadband cellular networks.
5G Infrastructure Public Private Partnership 5G PPP The joint initiative between the European Commission and European ICT industry (ICT manufacturers, telecommunications operators, service providers, SMEs and researcher Institutions).
5G New Radio 5GNR A new radio access technology (RAT) developed by 3GPP for the 5G (fifth generation) mobile network.
Application Programming Interface API An interface that defines interactions between multiple software applications or mixed hardware-software intermediaries.
Artificial Intelligence AI The simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions.
Cloud-RAN C-RAN A centralized, cloud computing-based architecture for radio access networks that supports 2G, 3G, 4G and future wireless communication standards.
Control plane CP The part of a network that controls how data packets are forwarded – meaning how data is sent from one place to another.
Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems C-ITS The concept in which vehicles communicate with each other and/or with roadside infrastructure significantly increasing the quality and reliability of information available about the vehicles, their location and the road environment.
User plane UP The part of a network that carries user traffic.
Enhanced mobile broadband eMMB Promises to provide broadband capability to users with a peak data rate of 20 Mbps enabling services such as immersive video.
European Telecommunications Standards Institute ETSI An independent, not-for-profit, standardization organisation in the field of information and communications.
International Organisation for Standardization ISO An international non-governmental organisation made up of national standards bodies; it develops and publishes a wide range of proprietary, industrial, and commercial standards and comprises representatives from various national standards organisations.
Internet service provider ISP An organisation that provides a myriad of services for accessing, using, or participating on the Internet.
Key Performance Indicator KPI A set of quantifiable measurements used to gauge a product/technology overall long-term performance.
Long-Term Evolution LTE A standard for wireless broadband communication for mobile devices and data terminals, based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA technologies.
Machine Learning ML The study of computer algorithms that improve automatically through experience and by the use of data.
Multi-access Edge Computing MEC The concept which offers application developers and content providers cloud-computing capabilities and an IT service environment at the edge of the network.
Network Slicing A method of creating multiple unique logical and virtualized networks over a common multi-domain infrastructure.
Network function virtualization NFV A network architecture concept that uses the technologies of IT virtualization to virtualize entire classes of network node functions into building blocks that may connect or chain together, to create communication services.
Open Source License OSL A type of license for computer software and other products that allows the source code, blueprint or design to be used, modified and/or shared under defined terms and conditions.
Open Source MANO OSM An open-source Management and Orchestration (MANO) stack aligned with ETSI NFV Information Models.
Open Source Software OSS A type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to use, study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.
Open Network Edge Services Software OpenNESS A MEC software toolkit that enables highly optimized and performance edge platforms to on-board and manage applications and network functions with cloud-like agility across any type of network.
OpenSlice A prototype open source, operations support system
Public Protection and Disaster Relief PPDR Radio communications refer to radio applications designed for public safety, security, and defence.
Quality of Service QoS The description or measurement of the overall performance of a service, such as a telephony or computer network or a cloud computing service, particularly the performance seen by the users of the network.
Radio Access Network RAN A part of a mobile telecommunication system, which implements a radio access technology.
Software defined network SDN An approach to network management that enables dynamic, programmatically efficient network configuration in order to improve network performance and monitoring, making it more like cloud computing than traditional network management.
Service orchestration The execution of the operational and functional processes involved in designing, creating, and delivering an end-to-end service.
Small and medium-sized enterprises SME Businesses whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits.
Start Up A company or project undertaken by an entrepreneur to seek, develop, and validate a scalable economic model.
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project 3GPP The unites [Seven] telecommunications standard development organisations (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TSDSI, TTA, TTC), known as “Organisational Partners” and provides their members with a stable environment to produce the Reports and Specifications that define 3GPP technologies.
Topology and Orchestration Specification for Cloud Applications TOSCA A modelling language for service designs in Telcos, Service Providers, Operators and more.
Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications for Remote Device uRLLC Guarantees sub millisecond response times enabling services such as industry 4.0, remote surgery, AR/VR, and rescue and smart car applications.
Vehicle-to-everything V2X Communication between a vehicle and any entity that may affect, or may be affected by, the vehicle.
Virtual Network Functions VNFs Virtualized network services running on open computing platforms formerly carried out by proprietary, dedicated hardware technology.
Virtual private Network VPN The opportunity to establish a protected network connection when using public networks.
Virtualization The act of creating a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, including virtual computer hardware platforms, storage devices, and computer network resources.
Virtual machine VM The virtualization/emulation of a computer system.
Yet Another Next Generation YANG A data modelling language used to model configuration and state data manipulated by the NETCONF protocol (RFC 6241), NETCONF remote procedure calls, and NETCONF notifications.